Thursday, 17 September 2020

Operating System क्या है और क्या काम करता है?

kya aapko pata hai operating system kya hai (what is operating system in hindi)? nahi pata to bhee mat ghabrana ke koi baat nahin, iska jawab hum denge aur uske saath kuchh aur sawaal ke bhi jawab diya jayega.

jaise ki ham jaante hain ki hum ek insaan hain aur ek insaan ke paas dil hota hai. aise mein kya aapko pata hai ye dil kaise kaam karta hai, shayad ye bhi nahi pata hoga.mere kehne ka matlab ye hai ki jaise ham insaan ke paas dil hota hai theek vaise hee computer ke paas bhi hota hai, aur ise takanikee bhasha mein computer ka operating system (os) kaha jata hai.

jab bhi aap koi mobile ya phir computer istemaal karte ho to hamesha aap bolte rehte ho android, windows, mach, linux ityaadi. to ye sabhi naam ek ek operating system ke hain. kabhi android kitkat to kabhi android orio, ya agar windows ki baat ki jaye to inko koi bolta hai windows 10, windows 7, windows 8, windows xp ityaadi. vaise hi mac os mein bhi hote hai.

lekin in sab ke baare mein har kisi ko thoda bahut gyaan jarur hai, lekin kisi ko ye nahi pata ye computer ka dil matalab is os ka kaam kya hai. ek chota sa ehsaas mein aap logon ko dena chahunga ki ek operating system ek prakar ka interface hota hai end user aur hardwares ke bich.

Operating System क्या है और क्या काम करता है?waise ye kitne prakar ke hain, ye kahan kahan istemal hota hai, inke mukhy kaam kiya hai ke baare mein agar aapko aur adhik janana hai tab aapko ye article operating system kya hota hai.

Operating सिस्टम क्या है – What is Operating System in Hindi

operating system ko system software bhie kaha jata hai. isko chote naam se jyadatar log os bhi bolte hai. isako Computer ka dil (heart) bhi kaha jata hai. operating system ek system Software hai, jo ki user matlab aap ke aur computer hardware ke bich mein interface jaise kaam karta hai.

mai seedhe seedhe is vaaky ko samajha deta hu, jab bhi aap computer ko chalate ho tab ye os hee aapko computer istemal karne ka jariya deta hai. jaise aap gana sunte ho, word document ke oopar double click karte ho, 3-4 window khol ke baith jaate ho, keyboard mein kuch likhte ho, aur kuch file computer mein save karte ho to ye sab aap bina operating system ke kabhi nahi kar sakte.

to yahi os ek esa software jiski madad se aap apane computer ko chalate ho. isalie jab bhi aap naya computer khareed te ho usme aap sabse pahle usame window 8 ya phir windows10 ko load karava te ho dukandar se aur uske baad aap computer ko apne ghar le jaate ho. varana bina operating system ke to  kabhi apne computer ko on bhee nahi kar sakte.


ye bhi ek sawal hai ki isko system software kyun bola jata hai. agar aap computer main user software matlab application software ko chalana chahte ho to vo bina os ke kabhi chal hi nahi sakte.

ye os computer hardware ko acche se istemal karne mein madad karta hai. operating system mukhya roop se yahi kuch kaam karta hai jaise keyboard se kuchh input leta hai, instruction ko process karta hai, aur output ko computer screen pe bhejta hai.

is operating system ko aap tabhi dekhte ho jab computer ko on karte ho tab aur jab computer band karte ho. aap game, ms word, adobe reader, vlc media player, photoshop jaise aur bahut sare software computer ke andar rahte hai inko chalane ke liye ek program ya bada software chahiye jisko ham operating system bolte hain.

Operating System क्या है


mobile mein upyog hone vaale os ka naam hai android jiske baare mein sabko pata hai. aapko pata chal gaya hoga ki operating system kya hai, to chalo iske kuch kaam ke baare mein jaan lete hai.

operating system ke naam

alag alag kaary ke liye alag alag operating system ka istemal kiya jata hai. yahan aapko operating system list share kiya hoon, jo jyadatar log istemal karna pasand karte hai.

  • microsoft windows
  • google’s android os
  • apple ios
  • apple mac
  • linux operating system

ye sab bahut bade bade operating system Company ke naam hai. vaise to in ke andar bahut saare alag alag na aate hai, par jyadatar log inko inhee naamo se jaanate hai.

operating system ke kaary

vaise computer bahut saare kaam karta hai, lekin sabse pehle jab aap computer ko on karte ho tab operating system pehle main memory matalab ram mein load hota hai aur iske baad ye user softwares ko kon kon se hardware chahiye vo sab allocate karta hai. niche OS ke alag alag kaam diye gaye hain, unke baare mein aur details mein jaante hain.

  • Memory Management
  • Processor management (Process Scheduling)
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • System Performance देखना
  • Error बताना
  • Software और User के बिच में तालमेल Banana 

1. Memory Management

memory management ka matalab hai primary aur secondary memory ko manage karna. main memory matlab ram ek bahut hi bada array ke bytes hai.

matlab memory mein bahut sare chote chote khaachen hote hain jahaan pe ham kuchh data rakh sake hain. jahan pe har ek khaachen ka address hota hai. main memory sabse tej chalne wala memory hai jisko CPU direct istemaal karta hai. kyunki cpu jitne bhi program ko chalta hai vo sab main memory mein hi hote hain.

operating system ye saare kaam karta hai.

  • main memory ka konsa hissa istemaal hoga, kounsa nahi hoga, kitna hoga, kitna nahi hoga.
  • multiprocessing mein os Decide karta hai ki kis process ko memory diya jayega aur kisko kitna diya jayega.
  • jab process memory mangta hai tab usako memory Operating System de deta hai (process ka matalab hai ek task ya fir ek chota kaam jo ki computer ke andar hota hai)
  • jab process apna kaam khatam kar lete hai to os wapas apne memory le leta hai.

2. Processor Management (Process Scheduling)

jab multiprogramming environment ki baat kee jaaye to os decide  karta hai, ki kis process ko processor milega aur kisi ko nahi milega aur kitne samay tak milega.

is process ko bola jata hai process scheduling. operating system ye sab kaam karavaata hai.

  • operating system ye bhi dekhta hai processor khaali hai ya phir kuch kaam kar raha hai, ya free hai aur process apna kaam khatam kar liya hai ya nahin. aap chaho to task manager mein jaake dekh sakte ho ki kitne kaam chal raha hai aur kitne nahin. jo program ye sab kaam karava ta hai, uska naam hai traffic controller.
  • process ko cpu allocate karta hai.
  • jab ek process ka kaam khatam ho jata hai, to vo processor ko dusre kaam mein lagata hai, aur kuchh kaam nahi hone par processor ko free kar deta hai.

3. Device Management

aap ke computer mein driveir ka istemaal to hota hai, ye to aap ko pata hi hoga jaise ki sound driver, bluetooth driver, graphics driver, wifi driver lekin ye alag alag input/output devices ko chalane mein madad kar te hain, lekin in drivers ko os chalata hai.

to dekhte hain aur kya kya ye Operating System karta hai.

  • sabhi computer devices ko track karata hai aur ye task jo karavata hai us program ka naam hai  I/O controller.
  • jaise alag alag process ko devices chahiye kuchh task karne ke liye, to devices allocate ka kaam bhi os karta hai. ek udahaaran le le te hain ek process ko kuchh task karne hai jaise video play karna, print nikalna, to ye dono task output device monitor, printer ki madad se hoga. to ye 2no device ko process ko kab dena hai ye kaam os karta hai.
  • jab process ka kaam khatam ho jata hai to vo vaapas devicei deallocate karta hai.

4. File Management

ek file mein bahut saare directories ko sangathan karke rakha jata hai. kyunki isse ham aasani se data dhoond sake. to chalie jante hain file management main OS  ka kya kaam hai.

  • information, location aur status ko sangthit karke rakhta hai. ye sab file system dekhta hai.
  • kisko konsa Resource  milega.
  • Resource dai-allocate karna hai.

5. Security

jab aap apne computer ko on karte ho to aap ko vo password poochta hai, iska matlab ye hai kee os aapke system ko unauthenticated access se rokta hai. isse aapka computer surkshit rahta hai. aur kuchh program ko bina password ke aap open nahi kar sakte hai.

6. system Performance dekhna

ye computer ke Performance ko ki dekhta hai or system ko improve karta hai. os ek Service dene mein kitna samay lagta hai, ye record karke rakhta hai.

7. Error batana

agar system mein bahut saare Error aa rahe hai to unako os detect  karta hai aur Recovers karta hai.

8. softwares aur user ke bich mein taalmel banana

  • Compiler, Interpreter or assembler ko task assign karta hai. alag alag software ko user ke saath jodta hai, jis se user software ko achhe se istemal karta hai.
  • user aur system ke beech mein communication prdan karta hai.
  • operating system bios mein store hoke rahta hai. baaki sab applichation ko bhi user-friendly banta hai.

operating system ki visheshtayen

ek operating system bahut saare program ke collection hai, jo kee dusre program ko chala ta hai.
  • ye saare input/output devices ko control karata hai.
  • saare application software run karne ki responsibility operating system ki hai.
  • process scheduling ka kaam matlab process allocate karna aur de-allocate karna.
  • system mein ho rahe errors aur khatron ke baare mein awagat karta hai.
  • user aur computer programs ke beech achchha taalmel sthaapit karta hain.
ab tak aap sabhi jaan hee gaye honge kee operating system kya kya kaam karta hai (function of operating system in hindi) to chaliye ab jaanate hain ki os ke kitne prakar hote hain.

Operating system ke prakar – types of operating system in hindi

din pratidin technology badalati ja rahi hai aur iske sath sab kuch badal raha hai to vaise hi operating system ka upyog her field mein badhta ja raha hai jaise Railway, Research, satellite, industry to jaanti hai operating system kitne prakar ke hain.

  •  batch operating system
  •  simple batch operating system
  •  multiprogramming batch operating system
  •  network operating system
  •  multiprocessor operating system
  •  distributed operating system
  • time-sharing operating system
  •  real-time operating system

Batch Processing Operating System

pahale zamane ke problems ko door karane ke liye hee batch processing operating systems ko laya gaya. agar ham pehle ke systems ki baat karen tab usamen jyada setup time lagata tha.
vaheen is jyaada sait up timai ka kam kar diya gaya is batch processing systems main jahaan kee jobs ko prochaiss kiya jaata hai batchhais mein. vaheen is prakar ke operating system ko batch processing operating system in hindi kaha jata hai.

isamen jo bhi similar jobs ho unhe cpu ko submit kar diya jaata hai prochaissing ke liye aur unhen ek saath run kiya jaata hai.
batch processing system ka main function hota hai ki vo jobs ko batch mein automatically hee aixaichutai karen. is kaam mein jo sabse mahatvapurn karya karta hai vo hota hai ‘batch monitor’ jo kee main memory ke low-and mein stith hota hai.

simple batch system

ye sabse purane wale system hai jisme koi direct interaction nahin tha usair aur computer ke bich mein. is system mein user ko task ya job ko process karne ke liye koi storage unit mein leke aana padta tha aur usko computer operator ke paas submit karna padta tha.

isamen bahut saare jobs ko ek batch ya line mein computer ko diya jata tha. kuch dino ke andar ya phir kuch mahino ke andar vo job process hoti thi aur ek output devices mein output store hota tha. ye system jobs ko batch mein process karta tha isliye isaka naam bhi batch mode operating system bola jata tha.

Multiprogramming batch systems

is operating system main memory se ek job ko uthaya jata tha aur usako Execute kiya jata hai. jo OS ek job ko procEss karta rahta hai, agar usee dauran job ko i/o chahiye to OS dusre job ko cpu ko de deta hai aur paheli wale ko i/o is vajah se cpu hamesha busy rahata hai.

memory mein jitne jobs rahte hai vo hamesa disk mein jitne jobs hai unse kam hote hain. agar bahut saare jobs line mein rehte hain to operating system Decide karta hai konsi job pahle process hogi. is OS mein CPY kabhi bi Idle hoke nahin rahta.

time sharing system bhi multiprogramming system ka hissa hai. timai sharing system mein response time kaphee kam hota hai lekin multiprogramming mein cpu usage jyada hota hai.

disadvantages

  • user aur computer ke bich mein koi direct interactions nahin.
  • jo job pahle aata hai vo job pahle process hota hai, isliye user ko jyada intezaar karna padta tha.

Network operating system

isaki abbreviation hoti hai NOS, NOS  ka full form hota hai “network operating system”. ye network operating system un computers ko apna Service pradan karta hai jo ki ek network se connected hote hain.

inke yadi udaharan dee jaaye tab isamen aate hain shared file access, shared applications, aur printing capabilities.

NOS ek aisa prakar ka software hota hai jo kee allow karta hai multiple computers ko ek saath communication karne ke liye, files share karne ke liye aur dusre hardware device ke saath bhi.

pahle zamaane ke microsoft windows aur apple opairating systems ko design nahin kiya gaya tha ek singla computer usage aur network usage ke liye. lekin jaise jaise computer networks dheere dheere badhne lage aur unka istemal bhi badhne laga, aur is prakar ke operating systems bhi develop hone lage.

ek nos (network operating system in hindi) ke mukhya roop se do prakar hote hain : –
peer-to-peer (P2P) os, jinhen kee pratyek computer mein install kiya jaata hai. vaheen dosra hota hai ek client-server model, jisamen ki ek machine hota hai server aur dusre mein client software install hua hota hai.

network operating systems ke prakar

network operating system ke prakar ki baat kee jaye tab ye mukhya roop se do basic types ke hote hain, pair-to-pair nos aur client/server nos:

Peer-to-Peer network operating systems users ko allow karta hai network resources ko share karne ke liye jo kee saved hote hain common, accessible network location mein. is architecture mein, sabhi devices ko equally treat kiya jata hai functionality ke hisaab se.

peer-to-peer sabse badiya kaam karta hai chhote se lekar medium LANs mein, saath mein inhen set up karna bhi bahut sasta hota hai.

Client/server network operating systems users ko pradan karta hai sabhi resources ko access karne ke liye ek Server ke madhyam se. isake architectural mein, sabhi functions aur applications ko unify kiya jata hai ek file server ke antargat jiska istamal ki individual client actions ke dwara Execute kiya ja sake vo bhi kisi bhi physical location mein kyon na ho.

client/server ko install karna bahut kathin hai, vaheen ismen jyada matra kee technical maintenance kee jarurat hoti hai. aur to aur iseman jyada kharcha bhi hota hai.

iskee sabse badi advantage ye hai kee iseman network ko centrally control kiya jata hai, jisse isamen koi bhee badlaav aasani se kiya ja sakta hai vaheen additional technology ko bhi incorporate kiya ja sakta hai.

ek network operating system ko ham darsha sakte hain ek basich OS ke taur par jo kee run karte hai ek network devices, jaise ki router ya firewall

Multiprocessor System

multiprocessor system mein bahut sare processors ek chommon physical memory ka istemal karte hai. computing power kaafee tej hota hai. ye saare processor ek operating system ke undair kaam karte hain. yahaan pe niche kuchh isake advantage diygae hain

advantage

  • raftaar khub jyada kyunki multiprocessor ka istemal hota hai.
  • bahut saare task agar ek saath process hote hain isaliye yahan pe system throughput badh jata hai. jiska matlab hai, ek second mein kitne job process ho sakte hain.
  • is os main task ko subtask mein divide kiya jata hai, aur har ek subtask ko alag alag processor ko diya jata hai, khaas isee vajah se ek task kaphee kam waqt mein complete ho jata hai.

distributed operating system

distributed operating system istemal karne ka ek hi maqsad yeh hai kee ,ye duniya ke paas powerful os hai aur microprocessor kaafee saste ho gaye hain, saath hee communication technology mein kaphee sudhaar hai.

is advancement ki vajah se ab distributed OS ko banaya gaya jiska daam kafi sasta hota hai aur door door vaale computer ko network ke jariye rok ke rakhta hai. jo ki apne aap mein hi ek badee upalabdhi hai.

advantages

  • jitne bhi door door ke resources hain un ko aasani se istemal kiya ja sakta hai, jise resources khali nahi rehte.
  • inase processing fast hotee hai.
  • jo host machine hai uske upar load kam hota hai, kyunki load distributed ho jata hai.

Time sharing operating system

ismen pratyek kaam ko sahi dhang se poorn karne ke liye os ke dwara kuch samay pradan kiya jata hai, jisase kee pratyek task sahi dhang se poorn ho sake. vaheen isame har User singal system ka istemal karta hai jisse cpu ko time diya jata hai. is prakar ke system ko multitasking system bhi bola jata hai.

vaheen iseman jo bhi taask hota hai vo ya to single user se ho sakata ya phir multi user se bhi ho sakta hai.

pratyek task ko poorn karane ke lie jitana samay lagata hai use quantum bolte hai. vaheen har taask ko poorn karane ke baad hee os phir agale task ko shuru kar deta hai.

advantages

chalie time-sharing operating system ke advantage ke vishay mein jaanate hain.

  • ismen os pratyek task ko poora karne ke liye barabar mauka diya jata hai.
  • ismen software ki duplicasy hona sahaj kaam nahi hai. jo ki na ke barabar hota hai.
  • aasani se ismen cpu idle time ko kam kiya ja sakta hai.

disadvantages

chalie time-sharing operating system ke disadvantages ke vishay mein jaanate hain.
  • reliability ka issue ismen jyada dekhne ko milte hain.
  • isamen sabhi cheezon ke security aur integrity ka khayal rakhna padta hai.
  • data communication ka issue ismen ek common problem hota hai.
  • time-sharing, operating system ke udaharan hai:- unix

Real-time operating system

ye sabse advanced operating system hai, jo kee real-time process karte iska matalab hai missile, railway ticket booking, satellite chodte vakt in sab mein agar ek second ki bhi deri sab kuch gaya paani mein to is operating system bilkul bhi idle nahi rahta.
ye vaise do prakar ke hote hai,

hard real-time operating system

ye vo operating system hai jo ki jis waqt ke andar task complete karne ka waqt diya jata hai usi waqt ke andar kaam khatam ho jata hai.

soft real-time

soft real-time mein waqt ki pabandi thodi kam hoti ismen hota kya hai agar ek task chal raha hai aur usse waqt koi doosra task aajaaye to nae task ko pahle priority diya jata hai. ye kuchh jankari three types of operating system in hindi. isse pehle aap jaan chuke ho what is operating system in hindi.

client operating system kya hota hai?

computer desktop ek standalone computer processing unit hota hai. inhen design kiya gaya hota hai logon ke liye automation tasks performed karne ke liye. ek desktop computer bahut hi uniquai hota hai kyunki ismen koi bhi networks ya external components ki jarurat nahi padti hai operate hone ke liye.

ye client operating system ka jyadatar istemal computer desktops ya portable devices mein hota hai. ye operating system typically alag hota hai centralized servers se kyunki ye keval ek hee user ko support karta hai.

smartphones aur small computer device mein client operating system ka istamal hota hai. ye operating system manage karta hai device ke components ko, jismen aati hain printers, monitors, aur cameras. pratyek computer k typically ek specific operating system hoti hai.

ye client operating system pradaan karate hain multiprocessing powair vo bhi kaafee minimal cost mein. client operating system ke antargat aati hain windows®, linux®, mach® aur android®.

pratyek operating system ko design kiya gaya hota hai kuchh spaichifich funchtion karane ke lie spaichifich hardwarai par. yahee hardware compatibility hee vo sabse primary consideration hotee hain jiske aadhaar par hi ek operating system ka chunaav kiya jaata hai chliaint chomputairs ke lie.

udaharan ke liye, abhee ke samay mein windows® ko sabase jyaada istemaal kiya jaata hai cliaint opairating systems ke tor par.

operating system ki poori jankari

to dosto aaj kee jaanakaaree kaafee mahatvapurn hai. to ye khaas student ke liye jyada jaruri hai. ab agar exam mein ye sawaal aata hai operating system kya hai (what is operating system in hindi) aur explain function and types of operating system in hindi to aap aasani se iska jawab de sakte ho.

vaise mere hisab se os kaafee teji se nae features leke aa raha hain, jaise windows 10 kee hee baat kar lo.

kyon ki shuruaat mein hai bataya tha kee os, computer ka dil hota hai. koee savaal aap puchna chahte ho to niche comment box mein jarur likhe aur koee sujhaav dena chaahate ho to jarur deejiye. hamaare blog ko abhi tak agar aap
subscribe nahin kya ho to jarur subscribe karen.

0 comment: