Tuesday, 15 September 2020

Computer Kya Hai- Basic Jankari Hindi Me

yahaan ham Computer kya hai ke vishay mein baat karenge. aasan bhasha mein kaha jaaye to Computer ek Electronic Device hota hai. ye jawab shaayad aap sabhee ko pahale se hee pata ho. to aap soch rahe honge kee aaj phir kyoon ye lekh jisake baare mein hamen pahale se hee sab kuchh pata hai.



jara rukiye. main aapko aaj jo basic Computer kya hai in hindi bataana chahata hoon usame se shaayad aapako kuchh pahale se pata ho par mera ye makasad hai ki aapko pooree Computer ke baare mein jankari dee jaaye na kee aadhe adhoore. mujhe pata hai ki aapko Computer ki basic jankari pata hai. par kya aapko ye pata hai ki ye kaise kaam karta hai, kisne isse pehle banaya, kis kis daur se hokar ye gujara hai. Computer ke viseshtaon mein kitne badalaav dekhne ko mile itne Saalo (years) mein.

aaj jo Computer ham istemal kar rahe hai is ke peeche kaee vaigyaniko ke saalon ke mehnat ka nateeja hai. vaheen aadhee adhooree gyaan se to achchha poora gyaan aapake paas ho. aaj main aap logo ko is article Computer kise kahte hai, isake mukhy ang kya hai, Computer ka phul phorm aur ye kaam kaise karata hai ke saath saath aap logo ko is yantr ke baare mein pooree jaanakaaree dena chaahata hoon. to phir deree kis baat kee chalie shuroo karate hain aur jaanate hain kee Computer kya hota hai.

Computer kya hai  Hindi

Computer ek machine hai jo kuchh tay nirdeshon ke anusaar kaary ko sampaadit karata hai. ek aisa elektronic yantr hai, jise banaya gaya hai jankari ke saath kaam karne ke liye. yah shabd computer, latin ke shabd “computare” se liya gaya hai. isaka arth hai calculation karana ya ganana karana.

isaka mukhy tor se teen kaam hai. pahala daata ko lena jise ham input bhee kahate hai, doosra kaam us daata ko prochaissing karane ka hota hai aur aakhir kaam us processed daata ko dikhaane ka hota hai jise output bhi kahate hain.

input data →  processing → output data

Computer  ka avishkar kisne kiya? modern Computer ka janak Charles Babbage ko kaha jata hai. kyunki unhone hee sabase pahale maichhanichal Computer  ko dijaeen kiya tha, jise analytical engine ke naam se bhi jana jaata hai. isamen punchh chard kee madad se data ko insairt kiya jaata tha.

to Computer  ko ham ek aisa advanced electronic devices kah sakte hain jo kee raw data ko input ke tor mein usair se leta hai, phir us dat ko program (set of instruction) ke devara proses karta hai aur akhir ke parinaam ko output ke roop mein prakaashit karata hai. ye dono numerical aur non numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculation ko prochaiss karta hai.

Computer  ka full form kya hai?

takaneekee roop se Computer  ka koi phul phorm nahin hota hai. phir bhi Computer  ka ek kalpanik full form hai,

C-Commonly, O-operated, M-machine,P- particularly, U- usaid for , T- technical , E-Educational , R – research

agar aap ise hindee mein traansalet karenge toh kuchh aisa hoga, aam operating machine vishesh roop se vyapar, shiksha aur anusandhaan ke lie upayog kee jaatee hai.

Computer  ka History – Generation  of Computer  hindi mein

is baat ki sahi tarah se pramaan nahin kiya ja sakta hai ki kab se Computer   ka development shuru kiya gaya. lekin officially Computer   ki Development ko Generation ke mutabik classify kar diya gaya hai. ye mukhy tor se 5 hisson mein bante hue hain.

jab baat computer kee generation ki aati hai tab isa ka tatparya hai kee Computer  ki pidhi in hindi. jaise jaise chomputair mein vikaash hote hain unhen alag alag peediyon mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya jisase kee inhen sathik rupp se samajhne mein aasaanee ho.

Computer  1st Generation – 1940-1956 “vacuum tubes”

sab se pehle gainairation ke Computer   vacuum tubes ko circuitry aur magnetic drum ko memory ke liye istemal karte the. ye sizai mein kafi  bade bade hua karate the. inko chalaane mein kaphi shakti ka istamal hota tha.

jyaada bada hone ke kaaran isamen haiat kee bhee bahut samasya thee jisase ye kaee baar malfunchtion bhee hota tha. iname machine language ka istamal hota tha. udaharan ke tor pe UNIVAC and ENIAC computers.

Computer   kee 2nd  Generation – 1956-1963 “transistors”

Second generation ke Computer  mein transistors ne vachchum tubais ki jagah le lee. transistor bahut hee kam jagah lete the, chhote the, faster the, saste the aur jyada energy efficient the. ye pahale gainairation ke Computer  ki tulana mein kam heat Generate karate the lekin phir bhi isamen heat kee samasya abhi bhi thi.

iname high level programming language jaise cobol aur fortran ko istamaal mein laaya gaya tha.

Computer  3rd Generations – 1964-1971 “integrated circuits”

third Generation ke Computer   mein pehli baar integrated circuit ka istemaal kiya gaya tha. jisame transistors ko chhote chhote kar silichon chip ke andar dala jata tha jise semiconductor kaha jata hai. isase ye faayada hua kee Computer  ki procassing karane kee chamta kaaphee had tak badh gayee.

pehli baar is Generation ke Computer  ko jyada usair friendly banane ke liye monitors, keyboards aur operating system ka istemaal kiya gaya. ise pehli baar market mein launch kiya gaya.

Computer ki 4th Generation – 1971-1985 “microprocessors”

forth generation ki ye khasiyat hai ki isamen microprocessor ka istemaal kiya gaya. jisase hajaaron intigrataid circuit ko ek hee silikon chhip mein embedded kiya gaya. isase machin ke aakar ko kam karne mein bahut aasani huee.

microprocessor ke  istemal se Computer ki Efficancy aur bhi badh gayi. ye bahut hi kam samay mein bade bade Calculation kar pa raha tha.

Computer    ki 5th Generation – 1985-present “artificial intelligence ”

fifth generation aaj ke dor ka hai jahaan kee artificial intelligence ne apana dabdaba kaayam kar liya hai. ab nayee nayee technology jaise speech recognition, parallel processing, quantum calculation jaise kayee advanced takaneek istamaal mein aane lage hain.

ye ek aisa gainairation hai jahaan kee Computer kee artificial intelligence hone ke kaaran svayan decision  lene kee chmata aa chuke hai. dheere dheere isake saare kaam automataid ho jaayenge.


Computer    ka avishkar kisne kiya

father of computer charles babbage

adhunik Computer    ke janak kise kaha jata hai? aise to bahut se logon ne is computing field mein apna yogdan diya hai. lekin in sab mein se jyada yogadaan charles Babbage ka hai. kyunki unhone hi sab se pehle analytical engine san 1837 mein nikala tha.

unake is engine mein alu, basic flow control aur integrated memory kee concept lagu kee gayee thee. isee model pe hee basai karake aajkal ke Computer ko deisign kiya gaya. isee kaaran unaka yogadaan sabse jyada hai. tabhee unako Computer ke janak ke naam se bhi jana jata hai.

Computer ki paribhasha

kisi bhi modern digital Computer    ke kaye components hain lekin un mein se kuchh bahut hi mahatvapurn hai jaise input device, output device, chpu(central processing unit), mass storage device aur memory.

  • accepts data_input
  • processes data_processing
  • produces output_output
  • stores results_storage

 

Computer   kaise kaary karta hai

input (data): input vo step hai jisme ki raw information ko input device istemal karke Computer mein dala jata hai. ye koi letter, Pictures ya koi video bhi ho sakta hai.


processes: processes ke dauraan input hue data ko instruchtion ke anusaar procassing ki jaatee hai. ye poori tarah se internal process hai.


output: output ke dauraan jo data pahale se processes ho chuki hai usko result ke taur mein show kiya jata hai. aur yadi ham chaahen to is result ko save kar ke memory mein rakh bhi sakte hain future ke istamal ke liye.


yadi aapne kabhi kisi Computer    case ke bheetar dekha hoga to aapane ye jarur paaya hoga ke andar chhote chhote kae components hote hai, vo bahut hi jyada complicated dikhate hain, parvo actually mein utane complicated nahi hote. ab mein aap logo ko inhee components baare mein kuch jankari doonga.

motherboard

kisi bhi Computer ka mukhya Roop Se circuit board ko motherboard kaha jaata hai. ye ek patalee plet ki tarah dikhti hai par ye bahut si cheezon ki dharan kiye hue hota hai jaise cpu, memory, connecter hard drive aur optical drive ke liye, expansion card video aur audio ko control karne ke liye, isake saath saath Computer    ke sabhi ports ko connection. dekha jaaye to motherboard Computer    ke saare paarts ke saath directly ya in directly juda hua hota hai.

CPU/processor

kya aap jante hai central processing unit yaani CPU kya hai? isako bhi kaha jata hai. ye Computer casa ke andar motherboard mein paya jata hai. ise Computer ka demag(mind) bhi kaha jata hai. ye kisee Computer ke bheetar ho rahe saare gatividhiyon ke oopar nazar rakhe hue hota hai. jitni jyada ek processor kee speed hogee utanee hee jaldi ye procaissing kar payega.

RAM

ram ko ham random access memory ke naam se bhi jante hain. ye system ka short-term memory hota hai. jab bhee kabhi Computer kuch Calculations karte hain tab ye temporarily us result ko ram mein save kar deta hain. agar Computer band ho jaye to ye data bhi kho jaata hai. yadi ham koi documant likh rahe hon tab use nasht hone se bachane ke liye hamen bich bich mein apane data ko save karna chahiye. save karne se data hard drive mean save ho to ye lambe samay tak rah sakta hai

ram ko megabytes (mb) or gigabytes (gb) mein mapa jata hai . jitana jyaada ram hoga utana hamare liye achchha hain.

hard drive

hard drive vo component hai jahaan softwares, documents aur dusre file ko save kiya jata hai. isamen data lambe samay tak store hokar rahata hai.

power supply unit

powair supply unit ka kaam hota hai kee main power supply se power lekar use jarurat ke anusaar dusare componaints main supply karana.

expansion chard

sabhi Computer ke expansion slots hote hai jisse ki ham future mein koi expansion card ko add kar saken. inhen pci (peripheral components Interconnect) card bhi kaha jata hai. lekin aaj kal ke motherboard mein built in hi kaye slots pahale se hote hain. kuchh expansion card ke naam jo ham puraane Computer ko update karane ke liye istemal kar sakte hain.

  • video card
  • sound chard
  • network card
  • bluetooth card (adapter)

note

yadi aap kabhi Computer ke bhitari chezon ko khol rahe hain tab aapako sabase pahale mukhy socait se plug ka nikalna chahiye.


Computer  hardware aur Software 

Computer hardwares ko ham koi aisi physical device kah sakte hain jise ham apne Computer mein istemal karte hain, vaheen Computer  softwares ka matalab hai codes ka collection jise hum apne machine ke hard drive  mein install karate hain hardware ko chalane ke liye.

udahaaran ke tor pe Computer monitor jo ham padane ke lie istemal karate hain, mouse jise ham navigation karane ke lie istamaal karate hain ye sab computer hardware hain. vaheen internet browser jisase ham waibsitai visit karate hain, aur operating system jisme ki vo internet browser run hota hai. aisee chezon ko ham software kahate hain.

ham ye keh sakate hain ki ek Computer software aur hardware ka samishran hai, dono ke samaan bhoomika hain, dono saath milakar hee koi kaam kar sakate hain.

jab bhee ham kabhi Computer shabd ka istemal sunate hain tab hamare man mein bas personal Computer  ka hee chitr aata hai. mein aap logo ko bata doon kee Computer bahut sare prakar ke hote hain. vivinn shapes aur size ke aate hain. jarurat ke anusaar ham inaka istamaal karate hain jaise kee atm paise nikalne ke lie, scanner kisee barcode ko scan karane ke liye, calculator kisi bade calculation karne ke lie. ye saare different types ke Computer hain.

1. desktop

bahut se log desktop Computer  ka istemal apne gharon, school aur apne parsonal kaam ke liye karte hain. inaka design kuchh is prakar se hote hain ki inhen ham apne desk par rakh saken. inke bahut saare parts hote hain jaise monitor, keyboard, mouse, Computer case.

2. laptop

laptop ke baare mein aap to jante hee honge jo kee battery powered hote hain, ye bahut hee jyaada portable hote hain jisase inhen kaheen bhee aur kabhee bhee le jaye ja sakta hain.

3. tablet

ab baat karte hain tablet kee jise ham handheld Computer  bhee kahate hain kyoonki ise badi aasani se hathon mein pakda ja sakte hai.

iseman keyboard or mouse nahi hote, bas ek touch sensitive screen hota hai jise typing aur navigation ke liye istemal kiya jata hai. example - ipad .

4. servers

ek server kuchh isaprakaar ka Computer  hai jise ham information ke aadaan pradaan ke liye istemal karte hain. udaharan ke tor pe jab bhee ham koi cheez internet mein kho jate hai vo saree cheezen server mein hai store hotee hain.

any prakar ke Computer 

chaliye ab jante hain kee any prakar ke Computer kya hote hain.

smartphone : jab ek normal cell phone mein internet enabled ho jata hai, vaheen usaka istamaal kar ham bahut se kaary kar sakte hain tab aise cell phone ko smartphone kaha jata hai.


pahanne yogay (Wearable) : pahanne yogy takaneek upakaranam ki ek samuh ke liye ek samanya shabd hai – jisamen Fitness tracker aur smart watch shamil hai – inhen kuch isaprakaar se daisign kiya gaya hai jisse ki ise poore din pahne ja sakte hain. in upakaranam ko aksar pahanne yogay kaha jata hai.


Game console (game control) : yah gem Console bhi ek vishesh prakar ka Computer hai jis ka upyog aapake TV par video game khelne ke liye karate hain.


TV bhee ek prakar ka Computer hota hai jisme sab kaafee Application ya apps shamil hain jo ki ise smart-tv mein parivartit karate hain. vaheen ab aap seedhe apane TV par internet se video stream kar sakte hain.


Computer ka upyog – application of Computer  in hindi

Computer  ka upyog kahan kahan hota hai? dekha jaaye to Computer  ka istemal ham apne jeevan mein har jagah karte aa rahe hain aur karate rahenge. ye hamara ek ang sa ban gaya hai. maine iske kuch istamaal ko aapke jankari ke lie niche likhe hue hain.


Use of computer in education: computer ka upyog: education mein inka sabse bada haath hai, agar koi student ko kisi cheez ke baare mein jankari chahiye tab use kuchh minaton mein hee ye jankari upalabdhi ho jaati hai is ki madad se. research se pata chala hai kee computer  ki madad se kisi bhi student kee learning performance mein kaphi badhottaree huee hai. aajkal ko ghar baithe hi online classes ki madad se padhai ki ja rahii hai.


health and medicine: ye health aur medisin ke lie ek vardaan hai. isakee madad se aajkal mareezon ka ilaaj bahut hee asani se ho jaata hai. aajkal sabhee cheeze digital ho gayee hai jisse badi aasani se rog ke baare mein pata chal jata hai aur us hisaab se uska ilaaj bhee possible hai. isase operation bhi asan ban gaye hain.


vigyan ke chetra mein computer  ka upyog: ye to Science ki hi den hai. isase research mein bahut hee asani hoti hai. aajkal ek naya trend chal raha hai jise coollaboratory bhi kaha jata hai jise duniya ke saare scientist ek sath milkar kaam kar sakte hain, isase kuch farak nahi padta hai ki aap kon se desh mein maujood ho.


businaiss: business mein iska bahut bada hath hai productivity aur competitiveness ko badhane ke lie. iska istemal mukhy taur se marketing, retailing, banking, stock trading mein hota hai. yahaan sabhee cheezen digital hone ke kaaran iskee processing badee hee fast ho gayee hai. aur aaj kal cashless transaction pe jyada importance diya ja raha hai.


recreation and entertainment: entertainment ke liye ye ek naya adda ban gaya hai, kisi bhi cheezon ke baare mein aap baat karo jaise movies, sports ya raisturants kahin ki bhi baat karo inka istamaal sabhee jagah hai.


government: aajkaal to government bhi inki istamal ke oopar jyada focus de rahi hai. yadi ham baat kare traffic, tourism, information & broadcasting, education, aviation sabhi jagah mein inke istamal se hamara kaam bahut ho aasan ho gaya hai.


Defense: sena mein bhi inka istamaal kafi  had tak badh gaya hai. jiski madad se ab hamare sena aur jyada sakti ban gayee hai. kyunki aaj kal sabhi cheezon ko Computer ki madad se control kiya jata hai.


aisee bahut se jagah hain jahaan ham isaka istamaal karate hain hamre jarurat ke anusaar.


Computer  ke laabh

  • Waise ye kahana bilkul bhi galat nahi hoga Computer  ne ham insano ke jeevan ko bahut hi sahaj bana diya hai apnencredible Speed, Accuracy aur storage ke madad se.
  • isase insaan jab chaahen tab kuchh bhee save kar sakate hain aur kuchh bhee khoj sakte hain aasani se. ham kah sakte hain ki Computer  ek bahut hi versatile machine hota hai kyunki ye bahut hi flexible hota hai apane jobs ko karane mein.
  • lekin isake vaabajood bhee ham kah sakte hain kee Computer  ek bahut hee versatile machine hota hai kyunki ye bahut hee flexible hota hai apane kaam ko karne mein, vaheen in machine ke kuch important advantages and disadvantages bhi hote hain.

multitasking

  • multitasking ek bahut hi badi advantagai hoti hai Computer ki
  • isamen koi aadmi aasani se multiple task, multiple operation, numerical problems ko calculate kar sakte hain woh bhi kuchh seconds mein.
  • Computer  asani se trillion of instructions pair second mein calculate kar sakte hain.

Speed 

  • ab ye keval ek Calculating  device bankar hee nahi rah gaya hai.
  • ab ye hamare jeevan ka ek bahut hi mahatvapurn hissa ban chuka hai.
  • iskee bahut hi badi advantages hain isakee high speed, jo kee ise koi bhi task ko Complete karne mein madad karte hai vo bhi bahut hi kam samay mein.
  • isamen praay sabhee operations ko turant hi kiya ja sakta hai, anyatha inhen karne mein bahut samay lagata.

cost / stores karte hain badi matra mein data

yah ek low cost solution hota hai. kyunki isamen koi insaan bahut jyada matra ke data ko kam budget mein save kar sakta hai. Centralized database ka istamal se bahut hee high quantity ki information ko store  kiya ja sakta hai, jisse ki cost ko bahut had tak kamaya ja sakta hai.

accuracy

ye computer apane calculations ko lekar bahut hee jyaada accuracy hote hain, inmen galati hone ki sambhavna na ke barabar hota hai.

data security 

digital data ko protect karna hi data security kehlata hai. computer hamaare digital data ko unauthorized users jaise ki cyberattack ya access attack se raksha karta hai.

Computer ke hani

ab chalie computer ke kuchh disadvantages (computer  ki haaniyaan) ke vishay mein jaanate hain.

virus aur hacking attacks

  • virus ek destructive program hota hai aur hacking us unauthorized access ko kaha jata hai jis main ownair ko aapke baare mein pata nahin hota hiya.
  • in virus ko aasani se email attachment ke dwara phailaaya ja sakta hai, kabhi kabhi usb se bhi  ya kisee infected websites se inhen aapke computer tak pahuncha  ja sakta hai.
  • vaheen ek baar ye aapke computer tak pahunch jaaye tab aapake computer ko barbaad kar deta hai.

online cyber chrimais

in online cyber-chrimai ko karne ke liye computer aur naitwork ka istemal kiya jata hai. vaheen cyberstalking aur identity theft bhi inhee onlinai cyber-chrimais ke tahat aate hain.

employment opportunity mein Ghauti hona

  • choonki computer ek saath bahut se kaary ko karne mein saksham hota hai isliye employment opportunity ko bhari nuksan hota hai.
  • isalie banking sector se lekar koi bhee governmental sectors kee aap baat dekh lo sabhee bhee computer ko jyaada mahatv diya jaata hai logon ke sthaan mein. isalie berojgari keval badha tee hee ja rahi hai.
  • dusre disadvantage ki baat karoon tab iske IQ  nahin hota hai, ye bilkul hi users ke upar nirbhar karta hai, isaki koi failing nahin hoti hai, ye khud se koi deccision nahi le sakta hai.

Computer ka Feature

vaise to din ba din computer mein kaaphee technological badlaav aa rahe hai. din pratidin ye jyada sasti aur jyada performance vaali aur jyada capacity vaali ban rahi hai. jaise jaise logon ki jarurat padegi vaise vaise isamen aur bhi jyada badlaav aaega. pehle to ye ek ghar ke aakar ka tha, ab ye hamaare haathon mein hee samaan ja raha hai.

ek samay aisa bhi aayega jab ye hamare man se niyantrit hoga. aajkal scientists optical computer, dna computer, natural computer aur quantum computer ke oopar jyaada research kar rahe hain . isake saath saath hi artificial intelligence ke upar bhi bahut jyada dhyan diya ja raha hai taaki ye khuda khud apna kaam sucharu roop se kar sake.

aaj aap ne kya sikha?

ab tak aapko computer  ka introduction hindi mein mil chuka hoga. mujhe poorn aasha hai kee mainne aap logo ko computer  kya hai (what is computer in hindi) aur computer ke prakar ke baare me poori jankari dee aur aasha karta hoon aap logo ko is computer technology ke baare mein samajh aa gaya hoga.

aasaanee se ab aap kampyootar kise kahate hain ka javaab bejhijhak de sakate hain. mera aap sabhi paathakon se guzarish hai ki aap log bhi is jaanakaaree ko apne aas-pados, rishtedaron, apane mitron mein sharai karen, jisase kee hamaare bich jaagarookata hogee aur isase sabko bahut labh hoga. mujhe aap logo ki sahyog ki avashyakta hai jisse main aur bhi nayi jankari aap logo tak pahuncha sakoon.

mera hamesha se yahee koshish raha hai kee main hamesha apne raiadairs ya paathakon ka har taraf se help karoon, yadi aap logo ko kisi bhi tarah ki koi bhi doubt hai to aap mujhe bejhijak poochh sakte hain.

main zaroor un doubts ka hal nikalne ki koshish karoonga. aapko yah lekh computer  kise kahte hai kaisa laga hamen chommaint likhakar jaroor bataen taaki hamen bhee aapake vichaaron se kuchh seekhane aur kuchh sudhaarane ka moka mile.computer ke bare mein jankari, computer ke bare mein jankari english mein,computer kya hai,computer ki puri jankari hindi me,computer ke bare mein 10 line,what is computer,computer in hindi wikipedia,computer ke parts in hindi,computer in hindi name

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