कंप्यूटर कितने प्रकार के होते हैं?, How many types of computer

 kya aap Computer ke prakar ke vishay mein jaanate hai?Yadi aap computer ka basic nahi jante to yah article padh sakte hai, aap sabhee ne jarur se computers ka istamaal kiya hoga, kyunki ye aajkal sahaj mein sabhi jagah mein uplabdh hai chahe vo schools ho ya offichais hon. vaheen aap sabhi ne shayad ek baat jarur se gaur kiya hoga ki ye sabhi Computer ke aakar aur karya karne ke Chamta samaan nahi hai.

jahaan kuchh computers bahut se chhote hote hain to kuchh aakaar mein bade hote hain. kuchh bahut hee tej kaary karate hain to kuchh bahut hee dheemee gati se apna kaary karate hain. ab savaal uthata hai kee kya ye sabhee Computer ek prakar ke hain ya phir ye ek dusare se alag hain.

How many types of computer



bas isee sawal ka jawab dene ke liye aaj ke is article Computer ke vibhinn prakar mein aaj aap logon se bas isee vishay mein jankari pradan karne wala hoon.

is articles mein aaj ham computer se sabhi prakaaron ke vishay mein jaanenge aur saath mein ye bhi jayenge kee inhen isake karyapranali, uddeshya aur aakar ke hisaab se kaise banta jaaye. ummeed hai kee is artichlai ke khatm hone tak aapako aapake sawalon ke jawab jarur se mil jayenge. to phir bina deree kiye chaliye shuru karate hain personal Computer ke prakar.

Computer kya hai?

Computer ek aisa machine hota hai jisko kuch aisa program kiya gaya hota hai jisse ki vo bahut se kaam hamare kar saken. ye hamare commands ko input ke hisab se leta hai, use process karta hai aur ant mein hamare results output ke hisab se pradan karta hai.

isake kuch important characteristics  bhi hain jaise kee

  • 1. ye respond karta hai ek specific set of instructions ko vo bhi ek well-defined manner mein.
  • 2. ye execute karta hai ek Prerecorded list of instructions (jise kee program kaha jata hai).
  • 3. ye badi hi aasani se bade maatra kee data ko store aur retrieve karane mein saksham hota hai.

isake alaava Computer bahut se chomplex aur repetitive procedure ko quickly, praichisaily aur railiably karne mein saksham hota hai.

modairn chomputairs kee baat karen tab vo ailaichtronich aur digital hote hain. isamen jo actual machinery (wires, transistors, aur circuits) hote hain unhe hardware kaha jata hai; vaheen instructions aur data ko software kaha jaata hai.

sabhee general-purpose Computer mein niche bataaye gaye hardware  components  shamil   hote hain,           

1. central processing unit (cpu): ye computer ka heart hota hai, ek aisa component jo kee asal mein instructions ko execute  karata hai jinhen kee organizaid kiya jaata hai programs (soft:;ware) aur jo Computer ko nirdesh karte hain kee unhe kya karna hai.

2. memory (fast, expansive, short-term memory): ye Computer ko enable karte hain cheezen store karne ke liye, bhale hee temporarily hee sahee jaise kee data, programs, aur intermediate results.

3. mass storage device: (slower, cheaper, long-term memory): ye allow karate hain ek computer ko permanently ek badi matra kee data aur programs ko retain karane ke liye koi jobs ke beech mein. common mass storage device mein disk drives aur tape drives pramukh hain.

4. input device: ye input device ka kaary hota hai data aur instruchtions ko computer mein enter karne ke liye. isamen keyboard or mouse mukhya hain.

5. output device: uses ko final results dikhane ke liye output device ka istemal kiya jata hai. isamen display screen, printar mukhya hain.

Computer ke parkar – types of computer in hindi

aap sabhee ko shaayad chomputair ke prakaar mein jaanane kee ichchha hogee. vaise chomputairs ke to bahut saare prakaar hain lekin unhen sahaj dhang se samajhane ke lie unhen alag alag chataigoriais mein baant diya jaata hai. jisase kisee ko bhee unhen samajhane mein aasaanee hogee.

Computer kitne parkar ke hote hain?

mukhya roop se inhen teen alag alag aadhaar par banta jaata hai.

  • 1. karyapranali ke aadhar par (based on mechanism)
  • 2. uddeshya ke aadhar par (based on purpose)
  • 3. aakaar ke aadhar par (based on size)

karyapranali  ke aadhar par Computer ke prakar (based on mechanism)

karyapranali ke aadhar par inhen teen bhaago analog, digital, and hybrid mein vargeekrt kiya gaya hai. jiske baare mein hum ek ek kar jayenge.

1. analog computers

analog computer un computers ko kaha jata hai jo kee analog signal ka istemaal karte hain information display karne ke liye. analog computers ka istamal analog dat ko prochaiss karne ke liye kiya jata hai.

ye analog data continuous nature ke hote hain jo kee discrete ya separate nahin hote hain. in data mein temperature, pressure, Speed, weight, voltage, depth ityaadi mukhya hote hain.

inmein information jo kee continuous form hote hain unhen curves ke aakaar mein display kiya jaata hai. inka istemal continuous physical quantity jaise kee current flow, temperature, blood pressure, heart beats ko measured karne ke liye kiya jata hai.

ye quantities continuous hote hain aur inamein ek infinite variety ki values pae jaate hain.

ye measure karte hai continuous changes ko kuch physical quantity mein jaise ki speedometer ka istamal car ki speed ko measure karne ke liye hota hai, thermometer ka istemal temperature ke change ko measure karne ke liye hota hai, vaheen weighing machine ka istemal weight ko measure karne ke liye hota hai.

ye Computers un situations ke liye ideal hote hain jahaan kee data ko accept kiya jata hai directly vo bhi measuring instrument se aur jinhen kisi prakaar kee conversion ki jarurat nahin hoti hai numbairs ya codes mein.

analog Computer's hi vo first Computers the jinhen kee develop kiya gaya aur modern digital Computers ke Development ka aadhaar mana gaya.

analog computers ke applichations kya hain?

analog computers ka jyadatar istamaal kuchh specialized Engineering aur scientific applications mein kya jaata hai, vo bhi Calculation aur analog quantities ko measure karne ke liye.

inka istamal process control karne ke liye bhi kiya jata hai, jaise kee oil refinery mein jahaan kee donon flow aur temperature measurements mahatvapurn hote hain.

inka istemal  papermaking ke lie bhi hota hai saath mein chemical industry mein bhee.

analog computers ko kisi bhi prakar ki storage capability kee jarurat nahin hotee hai kyon ki ek single operation mein hi measures aur quantities ko chomparai karate hain.

ek analog computer ki out;put from aksar reading ke form mein hote hain jaise ki series of dial (speedometer mein car ke) ya ek graph ke form mein strip chart mein.

2. digital computers

ek digital computer, jaise ki iske naam se pata chalta hai, ye batata hai ki ye digits ke saath kaam karte hain jo kee represent karte hain numerals, letters ya koi doosra special symbols.

digital computers operator karte hain inputs ke aadhar par jo ki "ON-OFF type" hote hain aur inke output bhI "ON-OFF signal" ke form mein hoti hai. normally, on ko Represent kiya jaata hai ek 1 se aur vaheen OFF ko Represnt  kiya jaata hai ek 0 se.

to yahaan ham kah sakte hain kee digital Computer information ko process karate hain Electrical signal ke upasthiti ya anupastithi ke aadhar par ya phir binary 1 ya 0 par.

ek digital computer ka istemal numeric ke saath saath non-numeric data ko process karne ke lie bhi kiya jata hai. ye bahut saare arithmetic operations ko bhi perform kar sakta hai jaise kee addition, subtraction, multiplication, division aayar saath mein logical operations bhi.

jyadatar computers jo ki abhi ke samay mein available hain vo sabhee digital Computer hain. digital Computer ke common Example  hain accounting machines aur calculators.

yadi ham results ki baat karen tab digital Computer jyada accurate results pradaan karte hain analog Computer ki tulana mein. analog Computer bahut hi jyada faster hote hain digital kee tulana mein.

analog Computer mein memory nahi hotee hain vaheen digital Computer mein hoti hain information ko store karne ke liye. ham kah sakte hain ki digital Computer count karte hain vaheen analog Computer measure  karne ke kaam mein aate hain.

ye computer information ko display karate hain text, graphics, aur pictures ke aadhar par.

3. hybrid computers

ek hybrid computer asal mein ek chombination hota hai digital or analog computers. isamen donon hee prakar ke Computer ke basic features ko aapas mein combine kiya gaya hota hai. jo kee hain analog computer ki speed aur digital Computer ki memory aur accuracy.

hybrid Computer ka istemal un sabhi specialized applications mein kiya jaata hai jahaan kee donon prakar ke data ko process karane kee jarurat hotee hai. isse ye user ki madad karte hain dono prakar ke data (continuous or discrete) ko process karne mein.

udaharan ke liye ek petrol pump mein ek processor hota hai jo kee convert karta hai fuel flow measurements ko quantity aur price valua mein.

vaheen ek hospital intensive charai unit (ichu) mein, ek analog daivichai ka istamal hota hai patient ke blood pressure aur Temperature ko measure ke liye, jise ki baad mein convert aur display kiya jaata hai digits ke form mein.

hybrid Computer ka istemal scientific calculations mein bhi hota hai, defense aur radar systems mein.

yah ek aisa Computer hota hai jo ki binary ke saath saath analog signal ko bhi samjhane mein saksham hota hai. isliye speed na to analog Computer se jyada hoti hai aur na hi digital computer ke mukaabale kam hoti hai.

uddeshya ke aadhar par Computer ke prakar (based on purpose)

computer ko uddeshy ke aadhar par do bhaago mein Special Purpose aur general purpose ke aadhar par vargeekrt kiya gaya hai.

1. General purpose computers

abhee ke samay mein jis chomputair ka sabase jyaada istamaal hota hai unhen hee gainairal-purposai Computer kahate hain — inhen built kiya gaya hota hai bahut se variety ke processing jobs ko karne ke liye.

aap keval ek general purpose computer aur kuch alag alag software ka istamal kar hi bahut se tasks ko poorn kar sakte hain, jisamen writing or editing (word processing), data basic  mein fachts ko manipulated karana, manufacturing inventory ko track karna, scientific calculations karne ke liye, ya fir kisi organization kee security system ko sambhalne ke liye, aise bahut se kaam mein inka istemal kiya jata hai.

ye general purpose  Computer itne jyada variety ke operations isalie kar sakte hain kyon ki ye aasani se alag alag programs ko store aur Execute kar sakte hain apne internal storage mein.

2. special purpose Computer

jaise ke naam se hi pata chalta hai kee ek special-purpose computer ko deisign kiya gaya hota hai koi specific prakar ke task karne ke liye aur jyadatar samay unke upyog ek particular  problem ko solve karne ke liye hi hota hai. isliye unhe  Dedicated Computers  bhi kaha jata hai. kyunki vo ek single task ko baar baar karne ke liye bane hue hote hain.

aise computer system ka istamal graphic intensive video games, traffic lights control system, navigational system ek aircraft ki, weather forecasting, satellite launch / tracking, oil exploration, aur automotive industries, time ka dhyan rakhne ke liye ek digital watch, ya robot helicopter mein khaas tor se istemal kiya jata hai.

is special purpose computer mein aapko bahut se same feature dekhne ko mil jayega jo ki ek general purpose computer mein hote hain. bas ismein ek special function ko jyada dhyan diya jata hai.

vo instructions jo ki is control karte hai unhe directly hee computer mein build kiya jata hai, jisse ki ye jyaada efficient ban jaata hai aur bahut hi jyada effective operation bhi karne mein saksham hota hai.

cunki ye ek hi kary ko karne ke liye bana hua hota hai jisse ise sabhi prakar ke baaki cheezon ka saath milta hai vo ek hi kaary ko sathik dhang se karne ke liye.

isakee jo ek badi drawbachk hai vo ye kee isemain versatility nahin ke barabar hoti hai. jisaka matlab ki ise dusre kisi operations mein istemal nahi kiya ja sakta hai.

aakar ke aadhar par Computer Ke prakar (based on size)

computer ko aakar ke aadhar par ham nimn shreniyon mein baant sakte hai, jiski jhankari aap ko aage ke article mein padhne ko milenge –

1. Super Computer

ye Computer multi-user, multiprocessor large Computer hote hain jinke bahut hi jyada efficiency  hoti hai aur saath mein storing capacity bhee.

in supercomputer mein bahut hi difficult or complex problaims ko solve karne ki chmta hoti hai vo bhi kuch hi nanoseconds ke bhitar. isamen bahut se RISH (Reduced instruction set computer) processors ka istemal kiya gaya hota hai ise banane ke liye.

supercomputers sabse fastest aur sabse jyada kimti computers hote hain. in computers ka istamal complex science aur engineering problems ko hal karne ke liye hota hai.

supercomputers mein parallel processing ka istamal hota hai jisse ki iskee processing sabase jyaada hotee hai, jisse ki bahut se CPU ko ek hi samay mein istemal kiya jata hai. ek typical supercomputer ek second mein kareeb ten trillion individual calculations karta hai.

supercomputer ke applications kya hain?

  • Inka istamaal weather aur global climates ko forecast karane ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • Inhen military research aur defense systems mein istemal hota hai.
  • Inka istemal automobile, aircraft, aur spacecraft designing mein hota hai.
  • Saath mein sensitive intelligence information kee encrypting aur decoding karne mein hota hai.
  • Inka istamal seismograph, plasma or nuclear research mein hota hai.
  • Protein folding analysis karane mein
  • DNA structural aur gene engineering ko study karne mein.
  • Digital film rendering 

C-DAC (centre for development of advanced computer) ne bharat mein param series ki super computer ko developed kiya tha.

Anurag bhi bharat ke ek super computer. Mr. Seymour Cray hee woh insaan hain jinhone ki duniya ka sabse pahla supercomputer develop kiya tha san 1976 mein jiska naam Cray-1 rakha gaya tha.

2. Mainframe Computer

mainframe (isaka matalab hai, “big iron“) computer ki dekhne mein bahut hi bade lohe ki imarat ke tarah hote hain. ye bahut had tak computer ke tarah hee hote hain, vaheen in donon mein jo main antar hai vo ye ki ek supercomputer apne sabhi raw power ka istamaal karata hai vo bhi bas kuch tasks ke liye hi, vaheen ek mainframes ka istamaal bahut se kaaryon ko ek saath hi karne ke liye istemal kiya jata hai.


inke isprakar ki nature ke lie, mainframes ko aksar employ kiya jaata hai bade organizations mein bulk data processing, jaise kee census, industry aur consumer statistics, enterprise resources planning, aur transaction processing mein.


vaheen ye jyada powerful multi-user computer hone ke vajah se inaka istamal large business organizations mein, examination department mein examinations ke liye, industries aur defense mein aisi daat ko prociss karne ke liye jo ki bahut hee complex hote hain. ye bade hee aasani se bahut saare request ko jaldi se process kar sakte hain. ye bahot se CPU  ke data processing process karne ke liyee hota hai.


kareeb 100 users se bhi jyada users ek samay mein mainframe computer ka istemal kar sakte hain kyon ki ye time sharing mode ke aadhar par kaary karte hai. iske word length hoti hai 48 bits se 64 bits tak.

  1. ibm ne sabse pehle mainframe computer banaya tha, system/ 360, san 1964 mein.
  2. ibm ke dusre udaharan hai: ibm s/390, ibm s/709, ichl 39, chdch 6600

mainframe computer ke applichations hain : –

  • government aur civilian
  • credit card processing karne ke liye
  • bank mein
  • marketing mein
  • business data processing karne ke liye bade organization mein
  • air traffic control system mein
  • industrial design karne ke liye

3. Mini computer

minicomputers bade aur jyada powerful hote hain jyadatar microcomputers kee tulana mein vaheen chote aur kam powerful hote hain jyadatar mainframe computer systems kee tulana mein.

vaheen high-ends models ki micro computer systems (jinhen kee super micros kaha jata hai) vo jyaada powerful hote hain kuhh mid rangai computers se, vaheen high—ends models ke midrange systems (supermini) bee jyada powerful hote hain kuch chote models ke mainframe computers se.

ye bhi ek multi-user computer hota hai jo kee support karata hai ek saath bahut se logon ko kaam karane mein. yeh microcomputer ke tulana mein kemtee hote hain. inka istemal university, bade business organizations mein jyada hota hai complex data  ko process karne ke liye.

saath mein iska istemal scientific research, instrumentation system, engineering analysis, industrial process monitoring aur control mein bhi hota hai.

  • mini computers ke udaharan hai : pdp-11, vax

4. micro computer

micro computer ko personal computer bhi kaha jata hai kyun ki ye ek aisa computer hota hai jise kee design kiya gaya hota hai ek user ke kaam karne ke lie vo bhi ek hi samay mein.

ye term microcomputer sambandhit hai ek term microprocessor se jis ka istamal hota hai ek personal computer ke saath kuch kaary karne ke liye jaise ki data ko process karne ke lie aur instruction codes ko bhi.

ye ek bahut hi common type ka computer hota hai istemal karne ke liye.

  • desktop computers ko mobile hone ke liye nahi banaya gaya hai. inhen ek sthan se dusare sthaan tak liya ja sakta hai lekin bahut hi kam aur jahan par sahi power supply ho. yah ek fixed computer hota hai.
  • san 1976 mein pehla personal computer – apple-1 banaya gaya, ise apple computer ne design kiya tha. san 1981 mein ibm ne bhi apna ibm 5150 pch ko announced kiya.
  • abhee jo computer jyaada istamaal hote hain vo sabhi microcomputer hi hote hain. inhen home pc ya personal computer (pc) bhi kehte hain kyon ki ye single user ke dwara istemal kiya jata hai. ye computer support karta hai bahut se higher level languages, multimaidi, graphics, 3d graphics aur games.
  • ye jyada popular hote hain students, professionals ke beech chunky inke chhote size, low price, aur low maintenance cost ke kaaran. saath hi mein inhen operate karna bhi utna hi aasan hota hai.
  • in micro pc ke kaaran hi internet bahut hi kam samay mein itna jyada popular ho gaya, aur ye sabhi income groups ke liye available hote hain.

5. laptop computers

yeh laptop ya handheld computers replacement nahin hain desktop computers ke lie. jahaan desktop computers ka istamal major processing functions ko perform karne ke liye hota hai, vaheen in laptops ka istamal bhi thodi kam complex kaary mein hota hai.

ye laptop computers bahut hi chote, portable, kam power consuming hote hain, saath mein inhen sabhi modern facilities ke saath equip kiya gaya hota hai jo ki ek modern pc mein hote hain.

ye computers poori tarah se battery se operate hote hain. vaheen inki storage capacity ek personal computer ki tulana mein kam hee hotei hai. lekin inhen kabhi bhi aur kahin par bhi le jaye ja sakta hai aur saath mein istemal bhi kiya ja sakta hai.

laptop computer ko sabse pehle socha tha alan kay jo kee us samay xerox palo alto research centre mein kaam kiya karte the san 1970 mein aur unhone use notebook ka naam diya tha. lekin sabse pahala laptop design kiya gaya tha san 1979 mein william moggridge ke dwara jo kee grid system crops mein kaam karte the.

vaheen san 1983 mein, gavilan ne ek laptop computer produce kiya jo kee 64 kilobyte memory wala tha, usmen ms-dos operating system, touchpad mouse, portable printer bhi tha jiske weight 9IB ke aas paas thee.

6. palmtop computer

jaise jaise logon ko computer ke baare mein pata chala vo iska jyada se jyaada istamaal karane lage. jiske kaaran vaigyanik ko aise nae computers ki khoj karne padte hai jisse kee logon ki jarooraton ko aasaanee se poora kiya ja sake.

isalie palmtop computers ko banaya gaya. isake madad se ise remote area mein bhi istamaal kiya ja sakta hai jahaan ke koi bhi electricity facilities available na ho.

isaka istamaal jyadatar higher authorities, social workers, researcher jo ki aise remote rural area mein kaam karte hain wohi iska jyada use karte hain. jahan desktop ke liye aapko ek tablai ki jaroorat hotee hai, vaheen laptop ke liye aapke lap kee, vaheen palmtop mein aap use apane hatheli mein hi istemal kar sakte hain.

mujhe umeed hai ki aapko mere yah Article computer ke prakar (types of computer in hindi) jarur pasand aaye hogee. meree hamesha se yahi koshish rahati hai kee readers ko computer kitne prakar ke hote hain ke vishay mein poori jankari pradaan kee jaaye jisase unhen kisee dusre site ya internet mein us article ke sandarbh mein kho jane ki jarurat hi nahi hai. isase unakee samay ki bachat bhee hogee aur ek hee jagah mein unhen sabhee information bhee mil jaayenge.

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